Input Output Devices Of Computer Essay Outline

In computing, an output device is a piece of computer hardware equipment that uses receive data and commands from an information processing system (such as a computer or information appliance) in order to perform a task. This leads to the results of data processing carried out by the information processing system which converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form.[1][2]

Display devices[edit]

A display device is an output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information. Information shown on a display device is called soft copy because the information exists electronically and is displayed for a temporary period of time. Display devices include CRT monitors, LCD monitors and displays, gas plasma monitors, and televisions.[3]

Input/output[edit]

There are many input and output devices such as multifunction printers and computer-based navigation systems that are used for specialized or unique applications.[1] In computing, input/output refers to the communication between an information processing system and the outside world. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it together.

Types of output[edit]

Some types of output are text, graphics, tactile,[4]audio, and video. Text consists of characters that are used to create words, sentences, and paragraphs. Graphics are digital representations of nontext information such as drawings, charts, photographs, and animation . Tactile output such as raised line drawings may be useful for some individuals who are blind. Audio is music, speech, or any other sound. Video consists of images played back at speeds to provide the appearance of full motion.[3]

Graphics (visual)[edit]

A digital image is a numeric representation of an image stored on a computer. They don't have any physical size until they are displayed on a screen or printed on paper. Until that point, they are just a collection of numbers on the computer's hard drive that describe the individual elements of a picture and how they are arranged.[5] Some computers come with built-in graphics capability of . Others need a device, called a graphics card or graphics adapter board, that has to be added.[6] Unless a computer has graphics capability built into the motherboard, that translation takes place on the graphics card.[7] Depending on whether the image resolution is fixed, it may be of vector or raster type. Without qualifications, the term "digital image" usually refers to raster images also called bitmap images. Raster images that are composed of pixels and is suited for photo-realistic images. Vector images which are composed of lines and co-ordinates rather than dots and is more suited to line art, graphs or fonts.[5] To make a 3-D image, the graphics card first creates a wire frame out of straight lines. Then, it rasterizes the image (fills in the remaining pixels). It also adds lighting, texture and color.[7]

Tactile[edit]

Haptic technology is a tactile feedback technology which takes advantage of the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user.[8] Several printers and wax jet printers have the capability of producing raised line drawings. There are also handheld devices that use an array of vibrating pins to present a tactile outline of the characters or text under the viewing window of the device.[4]

Audio[edit]

Speech output systems can be used to read screen text to computer users. Special software programs called screen readers attempt to identify and interpret what is being displayed on the screen[9] and speech synthesizers convert data to vocalized sounds or text.[6] Also it is used to produce music, speech or other sounds.

Scent[edit]

See Digital scent technology.

Examples[edit]

These examples of output devices also include input/output devices.[10][11] Printers and visual displays are the most common type of output device for interfacing to people, but voice is becoming increasingly available.[12]

References[edit]

See also[edit]

Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it.
Graphical output displayed on a screen

Essay About Input And Output Devices And Computer Components

The purpose of this paper is to answer questions about various data input and output methods, various storage types and devices, and the speed of a computer. Each of the four questions is divided into a corresponding section below. In the input device section, this paper focuses primarily on user input, rather than the input devices used to extract information entered by a user. In all of the presented cases, electronic scanning methods are the best method, and the method routinely used, to extract data and store it in repositories for compilation and analysis.

Input Scenarios

Printed questionnaires and telephone surveys are commonplace in today's poll-obsessed society. Today, individuals may receive questionnaires from sources ranging from the Census Bureau to Sears to AC Nielsen. Organizations deliver these questionnaires in a variety of formats and lengths, and require answers that use disparate measurement scales from Likert (bipolar) to unstructured. The style of survey used by an organization will vary greatly based on the subject matter and the goal of the survey. Among the most popular assessments tools of service quality (a common questionnaire/survey topic) is SERVQUAL, an instrument designed by Berry, Parasuraman, and Zeithaml (1994). Through numerous qualitative studies, they evolved a set of five dimensions ranked consistently by customers as central to service quality, regardless of the service industry.

Most questionnaires and surveys use both bipolar Likert/dichotomous and unstructured questions to allow the surveyor to benefit from the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative research. The use of quantitative questions allows surveyors to obtain a high degree of reliability and validity using the scientific method, and enables others to more easily repeat or replicate the study. The qualitative questions provide background for customer responses, and help to identify any underlying issues highlighted by the quantitative research. Triangulation, in this case the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, allows us to overcome the weakness of using only one research technique.

Both printed questionnaires and telephone surveys that assess service quality, therefore, require some type of manual data input (answers). The only difference is the method used to enter the data into the survey form. In surveys of any size, printed questionnaires either allow for on-line submission or follow a printed format that allows users to fill in pre-defined answers to questions. Surveys that include qualitative methods have one or more sections that allow the user to either type or write comments in an unstructured format. In telephone surveys, the surveyor almost universally uses a Web-based form or a computer program to enter data from the respondent.

In all cases, the keyboard and mouse are the most effective input devices. The use of electronic forms for data input, whether by the respondent or a...

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